It is the most common method of fish culture. Water is maintained in an enclosed area by artificially constructed ponds where the aquatic animals such the finfish and shellfish are reared. The ponds may be filled with canal water, rain water, bore well water or from other water sources. The pond must be constructed after proper site selection. The climate, topography, water availability and soil quality of the region influence the character of the fish pond.
Based on these factors, ponds are primarily of two types, namely,
Watershed Pond Systems
For watershed ponds, water required to fill and maintain the pond water is entirely sourced from the watershed runoff, though groundwater (bore well) and surface water (stream and reservoirs) can be used as additional water sources.
The major factors to be considered are soil type, characteristics, topography and water supplies.
The soil type influences how well the ponds will hold water; mud and mud-silt type soils are preferred for pond construction because it prevents leakage. The good quality soil containing a lower limit of 20 percent clay is necessary for making ponds. The topography determines the size and shape of the ponds. The watershed ponds should not be more than 10 feet deep. The size of the ponds should be less than 20 acres for better management. Sites, where huge individual ponds could be built, can be divided into smaller ponds built-in series. The availability and quality of water determine where and what type of pond should be made. Growing and harvesting are more challenging in watershed ponds than levee ponds due to erratic water supplies, uneven bottom and side, and size and excessive depth of the dugout. Advantages of this pond system include Construction of Pond is inexpensive, free water is available and there is less competition for water from other agriculture activities.
Levee Pond Systems
Levee ponds are created in flat land areas where there is inadequate water to fill the ponds from the watershed. The groundwater is typically used to fill the ponds.
Prior to building of ponds make sure whether the site is suitable for pond construction by looking at the characteristics of soil type, quality and ground water availability. The type of soil influence the pond productivity and life expectancy. It is necessary to have 20 percent of clay in the soil to prevent the leakage of the pool. The pond topography decides the size of the pond; generally, rectangular pond size is chosen due to its greater simplicity and ease of harvesting and feeding. Curved and irregular ponds are not recommended as it is hard to manage water quality. The water quality should also be considered before construction of the pond. Levee Pond is more suitable for growing and harvesting fish than the watershed pond.